Tajikistan in figures

Official name – Republic of Tajikistan

Capital Dushanbe

Location the South-east of Central Asia

Territory 143.1 square km.

Population – 8 000 000 (01.04.2013)

Currency Somoni (TJS), introduced in October, 2000

Greenwich Time – (+)5 hours. 

Telephone code  – +992

Language – Tajik (state language), Russian

Official holidays:

  • ·        1st of January – New Year’s Day
  • ·        8th of March – International Women’s Day
  • ·        21st -22nd of March – Nawruz
  • ·        9th of May – Victory Day
  • ·        27th of June – Day of National Unity and Concordance
  • ·        9th of September – Independence Day of the RT
  • ·        6th of November – Constitution Day of RT
  • ·        Idi Ramazon – annually one day (by the calendar)
  • ·        Idi Qurbon -- annually one day (by the calendar)

Tajikistan is located in the heart of Central Asia. 93% of territory of Tajikistan occupy by mountains with average altitude over 3.000 m. above sea level.

State borders - Length: 700 kilometres from west to east, 350 km from north to south. In the west and north, Tajikistan has borders with Uzbekistan (910 km) and Kyrgyzstan (630 km); in the south - with Afghanistan (1030 km and in the east - with China (430 km). 

Climate – is dry continental with big variety in different areas. Temperatures change from hot dry deserts in Khatlon region to cold harsh weather at the eastern Pamirs (absolute minimum -63 C). Main amount of precipitations fall from December till march. At the average we have more than 300 sunny days per year.

The geography of the Republic of Tajikistan is mountainous with heights above sea level varying between 300 and 7495 meters. Mountains belonging to the highest ranges of Central Asia make up 93% of the total area of the country. There is the Farghona valley in the north, while in the northwest and the central parts there are the Turkmenian, Zarafshon, Hisor and Oloy mountain ranges. The southeast boasts the impressive Pomir range (its highest mountain, the Somoni's Peak, with an altitude of 7495 meters, is one of the highest summits of the world); while the southwest has the Vakhsh, Hisor and other valleys.

                              The highest mountains (height above sea level, meters)

         I.Somoni's Peak                                      7495
         Abuali Ibn Sino's Peak                            7134
         Korjenevskaya's Peak                             6974
         Moscow's Peak                                       6785
         K.Marx's Peak                                         6726
         Garmo's Peak                                         6595
         Soviet Officer's Peak                             6233
         Engel's Peak                                          6510
         Vudor's Peak                                          6132
         North Muzkol's Peak                             6128
         Mayakovskiy's Peak                              6096
         Pakhor's Peak                                       6083

WATER RESOURSES. Tajikistan takes the second place among the CIS-countries by water resources. We have the highest water reserves of all Central Asian countries with more than 1,000 rivers, 2,000 lakes and 8,000 glaciers. The total area of the glaciers in Tajikistan covers more than 8476 km2. The glacier area of Tajikistan represents some 50% of all glaciers in Central Asia. There are over the thousand registered glaciers with a length of more than 1.5 km. Sixteen glaciers (such as Fedchenko and Grumm-Grzymailo glaciers) have length of more than 16 kme.The largest mountain glacier in the world, the Fedchenko, is located in the Pamirs of Tajikistan.

                                                     Main glaciers

                                          Square, km2                         Capacity, km³

Fedchenko                              156,0                                        93,6
Garmo                                      114,6                                        ---
Vitkovskiy                                 50,2                                         6,882
Academy of sciences 
of the USSR                             48,0                                         5,242
Nalivkin                                    45,2                                         8,588
Bivachiy                                    37,0                                        8,05
Grumm-Grzhimailo                    37,0                                       19,84

 The Republic of Tajikistan has an abundance of lakes and rivers. The rivers account for 60% of all hydro-resources of central Asia.

The longest rivers (length, km through the territory of Tajikistan)

Panj                                              921
Amu-darya                                    65 
Sir-darya                                      185 
Zerafshan                                    306 
Bartang - Murghab                        491 
Vakhsh                                         524
Kofarnihon                                   387
Gund                                            296

Tajikistan also abounds in lakes. There are some 1300 lakes with a total surface area of 705 km2. Karakul, Sarez and Yashikul are the largest expanses to have been created naturally. The lakes are mainly located at height of 3500 meters.

 Largest  lakes (surface area, km2)

Karakul                                   380,0
Sarez                                     79,64
Zorkul                                     38,9
Yashikul                                   38,0
Shorkul                                   16,3

Largest reservoirs          Surface area, km2             Capacity,mln.m3

Kairokum                               520,0                                  4160
Norak                                     106,0                                 10500

Flora & Fauna. Tajikistan's soil, and its flora and fauna are determined by the alpine environment. The flora abounds in wild fruit-bearing trees and in numerous species of plants, which are widely used by the population

Animals are also abundant. Tajikistan boasts some 80 species of mammals, more than 365 kinds of birds, 49 kinds of reptiles, 40 kinds of fish, 10 thousands of various insects. One can observe such predators as snow leopards, lynx, bears, hyenas, otters, wolves, foxes and martens, as well as deer and rock-goats.

Natural reserves. At present, there are 4 natural reserves ("Tigrovaya balka", "Romit", "Dashti Jum", "Zorkul"), 13 sanctuaries and 2 national parks in Tajikistan. The total protected are makes 21% of the total territory of the republic.

Mineral deposits. Tajikistan is also richly endowed with mineral deposits. Currently, more than 400 deposits have been identified, about 100 of which are being exploited. Some 40 kinds of mineral raw materials are being extracted, such as fossil minerals (about 10), ores and non-metallic resources (about 90).

Tajikistan has the largest coal reserves in Central Asia. The estimated total geological coal reserves amount to some four billion tons. Eighty per cent is coking coal. Deposits have been discovered for many rare and precious metals such as zinc, lead, bismuth, molybdenum, tungsten, gold, silver, antimony, mercury and fluorite, as well as gas and petroleum, among others.

Languge. Tajikistan is a multilingual country. The official language is Tajik, a member of the Persian group of languages (similar to Dari and Farsi). Russian is designated in the Constitution as a language for interethnic communication. Uzbek is widespread in the north and West of the country. In the Pamirs, several ancient dialects of the Eastern Iranian language family are still spoken.