Welcome to Tajikistan

Overview

Tajikistan has enormous reserves of renewable and safe drinking water resources. There are about 14,500 glaciers in Tajikistan with total iced area of 11 thousand km2, which is around 8 percent of total territory of the country.
From the glaciers the biggest rivers are stemming which are intensively used in national economy. In Tajikistan there are more than 2,500 rivers and channels of total extension around 90 thousand km.

The volume of water contained in the lakes is about 46.3 cubic km. The reserves are estimated at 19.3 cubic km of fresh water and 16.2 cubic km of underground water. This all is high on mountain gorges with major altitude difference. It should be noted that 54.3 percent of Aral Sea is coming by Tajikistan Rivers.

Tajikistan possesses vast inexhaustible reserve of hydropower resources, estimated at 527 billion kWh per year at an average annual capacity of 60.167 million kW. Power cost is 0.4 U.S. cents per 1 kWh, which is very low compared with other energy resources. Tajikistan hydropower resources technically possible to develop in the foreseeable prospect consist of 317 billion kWh per year, of which only 5% utilized so far.

In terms of hydropower potential Tajikistan ranks the eighth largest in the world

, after China, Russia, USA, Brazil, Zaire, India and Canada. 

For specific indices of hydropower potential per capita (73,8 thousand kilowatt-hours per year per person) and per square kilometer (3682,7 thousand kWt/h per year/km2), the country ranks the second and first in the world, respectively. The share of hydropower in the overall scheme of energy balance is more than 95%. The hydropower potential of Tajikistan is 3 times higher than the current 

consumption of electricity throughout Central Asia. With efficient use of these resources, the region can be assured of cheap and ecologically clean energy. 

Most of hydropower potential is concentrated in Vahsh, Panj, Amudaria, Syrdaria and Zeravshan river basins.

At estimation of total hydropower potential of Tajikistan small hydropower were singled out. Most of small hydropower potential is concentrated in the western regions of the Republic.

 

 

Potential reserves hydro energy recourses of Tajikistan

Pools of river Fair annual

river,
mWt Fair annual

energy,
TWt.h Share in general

volume,
%

Panj

14030

122,90

23,2

Gunt

2260

19,80

3,73

Bartang

2969

26,01

4,93

Vanj

1191

10,34

1,96

Yzgulem

845

7,40

1,39

Kyzyl-su

1087

9,52

1,78

Vakhsh

28670

251,15

48,00

Kaphirnigan

4249

37,22

7,00

Lakes Kara-Kul

103

0,90

0,17

Surkhan-Daray

628

5,50

1,03

Zeravshan

3875

33,94

6,38

Syr-Daray

260

2,28

0,43

Total

60167

527,06

100

Hydropower recourses of Tajikistan on categories

Regions

Industrial spare

Potential facylity

N,mWt

Production,TWt.h

Large rivers

Creek L more 10 km

Creek L less 10 km

N,
мВт

TWt.h

N,
mWt

TWt.h

N,
mWt

TWt.h

Sughd

1590

13,93

1544

13,52

1303

11,41

1288

11,28

RRS and
Khatlon

17709

155,13

22744

199,24

3974

34,81

16056

140,65

GBAO

5884

51,54

6990

61,23

2555

22,38

3713

32,53

Total

25183

220,6

31278

274

7832

68,61

21057

184,46

 

Electricity Exports

Export of electricity, owing to Tajikistan's geographical location is economically sound both to the near abroad and to the far abroad countries. For the purpose of generating power by Rogun hydropower station and Sangtuda hydropower station-1 as well as exporting excess summer electricity, investment projects for the construction of VL-500-765 kilovolt in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran and the People's Republic of China are worked out. The construction of electric lines through the territory of Afghanistan to Peshawar city of Pakistan, at an approximate length of 600-650 km will ensure electricity export to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan with a capacity of 5,5 billion kilowatt-hours yearly and with annual efficiency of about 200 million US dollars. According to preliminary figures, an approximate cost of lines will be 350 million US dollars

There is a Memorandum of Understanding for the construction of LEP 765 kilovolt (500 kilovolt) Rogun-Khorog- Wakhan Corridor-Chitral-Peshawar, between the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

There is an agreement with Afghanistan's Ministry of energy sector and water economy on the supply of electricity. With the support of the Ministry of energy sector's units of the Republic of Tajikistan, distribution network is restored in the frontier northern regions of Afghanistan. Via restored LEP-110 kilovolt, electricity is transmitted to Kunduz city.

Currently the transmitted power is 10-15 megawatt. A Report is signed with the Islamic Republic of Iran on matters pertaining to electric-power transmission to Iran in the capacity of 6 billion kilowatt-hours.

Already now,Tajikistan has a possibility of exporting electricity to Iran in summer time in the capacity of 1,5-2 billion kilowatt-hours. Iran is exploring the possibility of electric-power transmission through the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Turkmenistan and has started the construction of LEP-400 kilovolt at a length of 245 km from Mari city (Turkmenistan) to Mashhad city (Iran).

With the completion of the construction of Rogun hydropower station and Sangtuda hydropower station-2 construction, only 8-10% of hydropower potential of the republic will be used. Simultaneously the expenses for energy safety support will grow with increasing speed in connection with the rise in prices and mineral fuel reserve depletion in those neighbouring countries, which do not have their own sufficient hydropower potential.

For the purpose of developing mutual cooperation in the field of hydropower potential development, the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan offers to interested countries including interested states, to consider a matter of constructing hydropower installations for their own use in the territory of Tajikistan.

In 1970s, a scheme of multipurpose use of the river Panj and the riverAmu Darya was carried out by the Central Asian Hydro project department named after Zhuk S.Y., which we have at our disposal and which is used for working out a strategy of the development of the republic's hydroenergetics. Only in the river Panj, the main inflow of the Amu Darya, a construction of 14 hydroelectric power plants is economically sound with a capacity of 300 megawatt to 4000 megawatt and with 86,3 billion kilowatt-hours power generation per year.

One of the engaging projects is the Dashtijum hydropower station with a capacity of 4000 megawatt and with reservoir capacity of 17,6 cubic kilometers. The Dashtijum hydropower station site is located on a frontier area between the Republic of Tajikistan and Afghanistan and accordingly has a tremendous significance for Afghanistan's recovering economy, including the irrigation of hundreds of thousands of hectares of agricultural land that will consequently ensure employment of manpower resources and radical improvement of food supply for the population. Preliminary technical and economic assessment indicates that the Dashtijum hydropower station is one of the most economical and long-term hydropower stations of Tajikistan. By generating 15,6 billion kilowatt-hours a year, specific capital investments are 800 US dollars per 1kilowatt of installed capacity. Project cost is preliminary estimated as 3,2 billion US dollars. Dashtijum hydroelectric complex should be considered as a potential regional project for energy and irrigation purposes. Possible irrigation of hundreds of thousands of hectares of agricultural land in Afghanistan, guaranteed water supply for Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, a relative proximity of the main consumers of electricity in Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and the People's Republic of China, guarantees the project's recoupment within 4-5 years of service.

Preliminary surveys have shown that on the inflows of above-named rivers, technically it is possible to construct more than 200 small hydroelectric power plants with a capacity of 10 kilowatts to 3000 kilowatts in mountainous regions.

Energy consumption

Tajikistan possesses vast amounts of hydroelectric (527 billion kWh) and coal (700 m tons) potential of which only a small fraction (less than 6% hydroelectric and negligible coal) has been exploited. Hydrocarbon resources are limited and Tajikistan depends on imported oil products and natural gas. Oil drilling has not recovered since the civil war. Tajikistan imports nearly all of its oil, mainly from Uzbekistan. Some natural gas is extracted in Khatlon, but 95 percent of domestic demand is met by imports from Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Tajikistan's coal reserves are estimated at 700 million tons, with the largest field in the Sughd region.

The electricity subsector alone represents about 5% of GDP and is a critical input for the country's two main exports: cotton and aluminum. Generation is about 46 GWh per day, with peak production in the summer averaging 52 GWh per day which drops to 38 GWh day in the low water flow winter period.
Pamir-1 HPP accounts for 75% o f the capacity in the main grid system of the Gorno Badakhsan Autonomous Oblast (GBAO), operated by a privately owned company, Pamir Energy, under a 25-year concession given by the government. The north-south grid system in Tajikistan is the key vehicle for imports and exports of relatively significant amounts of electricity.

There are two 500 kV lines running from the Nurek Power Station to the 500/220 kV Regar Substation, and a connection from there to the 500 kV system in Uzbekistan. There are two 500 kV substations and about 300 km of 500 kVlines.

The 220 kV system consists of 30 substations and 1,200 km of lines. In addition, there are approximately 2,800 km of 110 kV lines in operation. Another project financed by China to connect Nurek and Kulyab city with a 220 kV transmission line is also under implementation. As regards consumption, TALCO, the aluminum smelter, consumes about 40 percent of total supplies. Households account for about 28% or power consumption and lift irrigation for 15%.

Until recently, average electricity tariffs were considerably below cost recovery levels at $0.006/kWhr. This problem was compounded by high technical and commercial losses and poor collection levels. Recently Tajikistan has committed to gradual yearly increases to bring the average tariff to a financial viability level ($0.1kWhr) by end of 2010. In the gas sector, the current tariffs have been increased so that they are closer to the financial viability levels. Coal prices are market based.

Per capita domestic energy consumption, at about 0.5 tons of oil equivalent, is very high given the level of the country's economic development. This is because of the low end-use efficiency and high heating requirements during winter. With the rise in prices of imported fuel households have switched to electricity for heating and cooking reflecting the fact that electricity is the only form of reliable energy available and the government's historical below-cost pricing policies have encouraged a shift to electricity away from other forms of energy.

Tajikistan, with its large hydroelectric potential relative to its domestic needs, has been pursuing energy export-led growth strategies since its independence. However, the potential has not been realized in part because of: (a) the significant resources needed to develop the hydropower plants and associated transmission lines; (b) limited regional cooperation; and (c) the lack of political stability and clarity in the export markets.